Effects of ice damage on growth and survival of shortleaf pine treesThis article is part of a larger document. View the larger document here.
Natural disturbance events, such as ice storms, may last from hours to a few days, but their impacts may create long-term disturbance in forest structure and development (Bragg 2016, Turcotte and others 2012). Following ice storms, the development and survival of individual trees may be affected by numerous factors such as extent of damage, residual density, stand age, vigor, site condition, and species (Bragg and others 2003, Dipesh and others 2015, Saud and others 2016a). In the Southwestern United States, pine species experience considerable crown damage from ice storms since they retain foliage throughout the year and provide large surface area for ice accumulation. Damage is especially likely in younger stands that are densely stocked and have low crown ratio (Guldin 2011).